Does An Inheritance Act Claim Die with the Claimant?
The Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants) Act 1975 allows individuals challenging a will to apply to the courts for inheritance beyond that stated in the will. Although English law recognises the principle that people should be free to leave their property as they wish, the Inheritance Act recognises that family and dependants should be left with reasonable financial provision after the testator dies. A claim under the Inheritance Act does not question the validity of the will itself.
The Case of Roberts & Anor v Fresco
In the case of Roberts & Anor v Fresco  EWHC 283 (Ch), the court was asked to answer the question: can a claim contesting a will under s1(1) of the Inheritance Act 1975 be made on behalf of a deceased claimant?
The facts of Roberts v Fresco
Mrs Milbour died in January 2014. Her estate was worth more than £16 million. This money was all left to the defendant, Mrs Milbour’s only child. Mr Milbour, the deceased’s husband, only inherited an income from his wife of £150,000.
Mr Milbour passed away in October 2014 only 9 months after his wife. Given the size of his wife’s estate, he might have had strong grounds for a will dispute due to a lack of reasonable financial provision in the circumstances. However, Mr Milbour did not make a claim for reasonable financial provision under s1(1) of the 1975 Inheritance Act during his lifetime.
As a result of Mr Milbour’s relatively small inheritance from his late wife, there was only £320,000 in Mr Milbour’s estate that was left to his daughter (the first claimant) and granddaughter (the second claimant) after his death. The court was asked whether it was possible for such a claim contesting a will to be made on Mr Milbour’s behalf after he had passed away. This would then determine whether his estate should be amended to include more inheritance from his wife, and therefore leave a larger inheritance to his daughter and grandchild.
Can a claim be brought under the Inheritance Act on behalf of a deceased individual?
In the will dispute cases of Whytte v Ticehurst  Fam 64, and Re Bramwell (deceased)  2 FLR 263, the courts decided that a will dispute in the form of an Inheritance Act claim would be unenforceable once the claimant dies. Thus, there is a rule that to make a claim under the Inheritance Act 1975, the claimant must still be alive.
In the Roberts & Anor v Fresco  EWHC 283 (Ch), the judge Mr S Monty QC said in paragraph 49 of his judgement, “both Whytte and Bramwell remain good law. I am not bound to follow these decisions as they are decisions of a court of equivalent jurisdiction. But in my view, they were correctly decided.” Therefore, this legal principle has been upheld, and when challenging a will under the Inheritance Act 1975, an unresolved claim will die with the claimant.
Furthermore, in paragraph 45 of the judgement Mr S Monty QC stated, “Unless the applicant brings the claim and obtains an order, it remains a hope or contingency”. Therefore, a will dispute under the Inheritance Act 1975 will die with the claimant unless they have already successfully obtained an order from the courts before their death. The application to adjust the estate under the Inheritance Act 1975 on behalf of Mr Milbour therefore failed because he had passed away before bringing a successful claim.
Was there another remedy under the Inheritance Act?
In the case of Roberts & Anor v Fresco, the court was also asked about a potential new claim brought about by Mr Milbour’s daughter under S2(1)(f) of the Inheritance Act 1975. This claim was made on the basis that she was in effect, a child of the marriage between her father and Mrs Milbour. This would lead to an adjustment of the settlement of the former matrimonial home, which was worth about £9 million. The judge found that contesting a will under the Inheritance Act on behalf of a deceased claimant is not enforceable. However, the judge allowed this new separate claim, so Mr Milbour’s daughter might still benefit from Mrs Milbour’s estate through her family relationships with her late father and stepmother.
As experienced will dispute solicitors, we can offer you advice on the right way to approach your dispute, and achieve the best outcome for you and your family. We can usually act on a no win no fee basis too, meaning legal fees will be more manageable. If you would like to discuss your will dispute, get in touch for a free claim assessment.